By quantifying sensory perception, we are aiding the development of healthier, lower cost foods with the same ‘mouth feel’ as market leading products.
‘Creamy’, ‘sugary’ and ‘slimy’ are all adjectives commonly used to describe foods during consumer panel testing.
By linking these adjectives to physical, measurable properties of a sample, analysis can be performed to screen numerous new formulations without the expense and ambiguity of panel tests, saving companies both time and money.
Using our instruments, researchers have discovered that the frictional properties of our favourite foods are related to their fat and sugar content (i.e. the higher the fat content the lower the friction coefficient, hence the creamier the taste).
Food and Beverage research areas include:
Reduced fat dairy products such as yoghurt, cream, mayonnaise and chocolate.
Astringency of wine, green/black tea and fruit.
Carbonated vs non-carbonated beverages.
Reduced sugar content of beverages.
Mouthfeel of foods and its impact on enjoyment and satiation.
Food & Beverage Industry includes the following:
Not just the taste but also the feel of a drink will change how enjoyable it is to drink. This has been investigated for everything from wines to soft drinks.
A key aspect of enjoying food is its mouthfeel. Studies have looked at a range of food groups such as dairy foods and their creaminess, and the smoothness of baby foods.
Pet food isn't just for nutrition but can also serve to clean their teeth. Research into this field is ongoing, in what is a rapidly growing market.
Polymer-Thickened Oil Rheology When There is No Second Newtonian
16 Jul 2019
Author: S. Bair
The recent development of quantitative elastohydrodynamics makes the accurate description of the temperature, pressure, and shear dependence of viscosity extremely …
The recent development of quantitative elastohydrodynamics makes the accurate description of the temperature, pressure, and shear dependence of viscosity extremely important. It has been customary for tribologists to expect a second Newtonian plateau to appear in any flow curve for a polymer-blended lubricant and, since viscometers at ambient pressure cannot reach such a plateau, procedures have been suggested to extrapolate to a second Newtonian from commercial high-shear viscometer data. Two examples of oils, characterized in pressurized thin-film Couette viscometers, are presented for which there is no second Newtonian. Extrapolation from ambient-pressure high-shear viscometer data, by fixing the second Newtonian viscosity at the viscosity of the base oil, is not useful. Apparently, the second Newtonian will not appear when the base oil begins to shear thin at the shear stress for which the second Newtonian inflection might appear.
In-situ Observations of the Effect of the ZDDP Tribofilm Growth on Micropitting
06 Jun 2019
Author: M. Ueda, H. Spikes, A. Kadiric
The ongoing trend for using ever lower viscosities of lubricating oils, with the aim of improving the efficiency of mechanical …
The ongoing trend for using ever lower viscosities of lubricating oils, with the aim of improving the efficiency of mechanical systems, means that machine components are required to operate for longer periods under thin film, mixed lubrication conditions where the risk of surface damage is increased. For this reason, the role of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) antiwear lubricant additive has become increasingly important in order to provide adequate surface protection. It is known that due to its exceptional effectiveness in reducing surface wear, ZDDP may promote micropitting by preventing adequate running-in of the contacting surfaces. However, the relationship between ZDDP tribofilm growth rate and the evolution of micropitting has not been directly demonstrated. To address this, we report the development of a novel technique using MTM-SLIM to obtain micropitting and observe ZDDP tribofilm growth in parallel throughout a test. This is then applied to investigate the effect of ZDDP concentration and type on micropitting.
It is found that oils with higher ZDDP concentrations produce more micropitting but less surface wear and that, at a given concentration, a mixed primary-secondary ZDDP results in more severe micropitting than a primary ZDDP. Too rapid formation of a thick antiwear tribofilm early in the test serves to prevent adequate running-in of sliding parts, which subsequently leads to higher asperity stresses and more asperity stress cycles and consequently more micropitting. Therefore, any adverse effects of ZDDP on micropitting and surface fatigue in general are mechanical in nature and can be accounted for through ZDDP's influence on running-in and resulting asperity stress history. The observed correlation between antiwear film formation rate and micropitting should help in the design of oil formulations that extend component lifetime by controlling both wear and micropitting damage.