Lifestyle

Tribology isn't just for machines, it's found all around us in our every day life. From skin creams to pet foods tribology is shaping how we interact with the world.

Lifestyle

The lifestyle industry is ever growing and while it is a relatively new area for tribological research compared to mechanical systems research in this field has grown rapidly in the last couple of decades. This research is spread across the wide range of sectors that “lifestyle” covers and many researchers around the world are utilising PCS’ instruments to facilitate these studies.

One example of an area of intense and expanding research is the tribology of personal care products. Researchers are working hard to link data from laboratory based tribological testing to what is reported by consumers. Doing this enables the objective quantitative assessment of formulations. With bench top testing being substantially quicker and cheaper than most consumer panel testing, this process of tribological study enables more formulations to be tested and developed to find the best product.

Using PCS’ instruments the process of applying product to the skin can be mimicked and the frictional properties of the lubricant (eg skin cream) can be determined. Samples can be tested using specimens with similar properties to that of the skin and user defined profiles. The results produced can then be compared to market leading products and feedback from consumer testing.

Lifestyle research areas include

  • Skin creams (cosmetic and medical)
  • Hair and shaving products
  • Dental pet foods
  • Cosmetics
  • Sports equipment design
  • Haptic feedback systems
  • Nail polish and varnish
  • Toothbrush design

Lifestyle Industry includes the following:

Personal Care

Personal Care

How a product feels when used is critical to a consumer's experience, skin creams, exfoliates, toothpastes and more have been investigated

Haptics

Haptics

Touchscreen devices are continuing to become more common, so how we interact with them, how responsive they are and how they feel to use is continually being developed.

Watches

Watches

High end mechanical watches often have just one drop of oil in them to lubricate them for a lifetime. Making sure that oil performs exactly as required is therefore critical to a well functioning, long lasting watch.

Sports

Sports

Tribology is found in all levels of all sports, from the grip of a racket, to your skis on the slope and can even be a matter of life and death for climbers with their chalk.

Pet Care

Pet Care

Pets can benefit from improvements to teeth cleaning chews and humans can learn from how animals interact with their environments, like shark skin technology in racing swimming costumes.

Motor Sport

Motor Sport

Not only is tribology vital for engines, bearings and gearboxes. In motorsport even tyre and braking performance needs to be optimised through tribological investigation.

Coatings

Coatings

From non-stick pans to waterproof sprays, coatings are used everywhere and how they interact with the surfaces they come in contact with has been investigated.

Food & Beverage

Food & Beverage

The mouthfeel of products is a growing field. Research has been conducted on everything from the creaminess of dairy products to the astringency of wine.

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Lifestyle Industry Articles & Papers

Paper

In-situ Observations of the Effect of the ZDDP Tribofilm Growth on Micropitting

The ongoing trend for using ever lower viscosities of lubricating oils, with the aim of improving the efficiency of mechanical …

The ongoing trend for using ever lower viscosities of lubricating oils, with the aim of improving the efficiency of mechanical systems, means that machine components are required to operate for longer periods under thin film, mixed lubrication conditions where the risk of surface damage is increased. For this reason, the role of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) antiwear lubricant additive has become increasingly important in order to provide adequate surface protection. It is known that due to its exceptional effectiveness in reducing surface wear, ZDDP may promote micropitting by preventing adequate running-in of the contacting surfaces. However, the relationship between ZDDP tribofilm growth rate and the evolution of micropitting has not been directly demonstrated. To address this, we report the development of a novel technique using MTM-SLIM to obtain micropitting and observe ZDDP tribofilm growth in parallel throughout a test. This is then applied to investigate the effect of ZDDP concentration and type on micropitting. It is found that oils with higher ZDDP concentrations produce more micropitting but less surface wear and that, at a given concentration, a mixed primary-secondary ZDDP results in more severe micropitting than a primary ZDDP. Too rapid formation of a thick antiwear tribofilm early in the test serves to prevent adequate running-in of sliding parts, which subsequently leads to higher asperity stresses and more asperity stress cycles and consequently more micropitting. Therefore, any adverse effects of ZDDP on micropitting and surface fatigue in general are mechanical in nature and can be accounted for through ZDDP's influence on running-in and resulting asperity stress history. The observed correlation between antiwear film formation rate and micropitting should help in the design of oil formulations that extend component lifetime by controlling both wear and micropitting damage.

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Paper

Effect of Retained Austenite on Spalling Behavior of Carburized AISI 8620 Steel Under Boundary Lubrication

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of retained austenite (RA) on the macropitting or spalling behavior …

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of retained austenite (RA) on the macropitting or spalling behavior of carburized AISI 8620 steel under boundary lubrication condition. Samples with RA ranging from approximately 0 to 70% were prepared using specific carburizing schemes. Macropitting tests were carried out at maximum contact pressure 1.9 GPa using a benchtop test rig. Samples were subsequently analyzed using noncontact white light profilometry and micro X-Ray Diffraction to observe the evolution of contact surface and RA respectively. Results indicated that increasing RA and minimizing pre-existing sub-surface cracks in the material help to enhance macropitting life. The failure mechanism for all samples was from spall formation due to sub-surface crack initiation and propagation with clear evidence of RA transforming to martensite. Pre- and post-experiment residual stress showed the impact of phase transformation on enhancement of residual stress during RCF experiments, however residual stress was not a significant factor in impacting the life.

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